Yesterday one of the participant asked me what and when is the time for the project proposal in the project management activities, is shot he is asking the right question after seeing there is no indication for proposal discussion before the implementation of the project or even before project charter started. And adding to this have you ever been part of a project where not everyone has the same view of where the project is heading? This lack of clarity can breed confusion: People start pulling in different directions, building up unrealistic expectations, and harboring unnecessary worries and fears. While it's normal as part of a project to put the detailed plans, controls and reporting mechanisms into place, how do you get everyone on the same page to start with?
The answer for both scenario are accomplished by creating a Project Initiation Document (PID) - the top-level project planning document. In it, you bring together all of the information needed to get your project started, and communicate that key information to the project's stakeholders. With a well-put-together Project Initiation Document, you can let everyone understand where the project's heading from the outset.
Your Project Initiation Document does the following:
Defines your project and its scope.
Justifies your project.
Secures funding for the project, if necessary.
Defines the roles and responsibilities of project participants.
Gives people the information they need to be productive and effective right from the start.
By creating a PID, you'll answer the questions: What? Why? Who? How? When?
Although most project-driven organizations have their own templates for Project Initiation Documents, the information contained in those documents is often quite similar, despite variations in the terms used.Here, we work through the most common sections, and look at the information that should be covered in each.
1: What? First is the What, this tells what the project is seeking to achieve. In it, describe the problem that the project is seeking to solve, as well as a full definition of the project.
This section will typically cover the following topics:
Background What is the context of the project, and why is the work needed? Briefly describe the idea or problem, and discuss why this project is relevant and timely. The details will come later, so use this section to highlight briefly how this project came to be.
Purpose: Why are you doing this work? Describe the desired end result of this project.
Objectives: What specific outcomes will be achieved, and how will you measure these outcomes? Remember to limit the number of objectives for your project - four or five goals are typically enough.
Scope: What are the boundaries for this project (for example, type of work, type of client, type of problem, geographic area covered)? List any areas excluded that you believe stakeholders might assume are included, but are not. The more specific you are, the less opportunity there is for misunderstanding at a later stage in the project.
Deliverables: What will the project deliver as outputs? Where you can, describe deliverables as tangible items like reports, products, or services. Remember to include a date that each deliverable is expected. You'll use this information to monitor milestones.
Constraints: What things must you take into consideration that will influence your deliverables and schedule? These are external variables that you cannot control but need to manage.
Assumptions: What assumptions are you making at the start of the project? If necessary, schedule work to confirm these assumptions.
2: Why? Second is the Why, this build a business case to show why your project is going ahead. Describe the effect the project will have on the business, and support this with a detailed account of the risks that should be considered.
Benefits: Why are you carrying out this project, and what benefits do you expect it to deliver? Include information on how these benefits will be measured.
Options: What other courses of action were considered as this project was designed and developed?
Cost and Timescale: Provide a breakdown of project costs and related financing.
Cost/Benefit Analysis: How are the costs of the project balanced against the expected returns?
Risk Identification: Identify the risks within the project, and that you'll either need to manage or accept.
Risk Prevention: Describe what you are going to do to mitigate or manage risks.
Risk Management: Where you can't prevent risks, what are your contingency plans for dealing with them? What actions will you take should the risk materialize?
Risk Monitoring: What processes do you have in place to routinely assess the risks associated with your project?
3: Who? Third is the Who, this describe how the project will be organized and managed. Identify reporting lines, and outline specific roles that will be filled. You need to be clear about staff roles so that you don't duplicate responsibilities, and so that everyone is clear about what's expected of them. If this is a long-term project, you may even consider developing job descriptions for team members.
Roles and Responsibilities
Project Organization Chart/Structure: Create a diagram that shows the lines of authority and reporting for each project team member.
Project Sponsor: Who has the ultimate authority and control over the project and its implementation?
Project Manager: Who is the Project Manager, and what are his or her responsibilities?
Project Team: Who are the key members of the project team? What are their roles and job descriptions? What are their phone numbers and email addresses? What is their original department or organization? And to whom do they report to on a daily basis?
4: How and When? Lastly is the How and When, this provide broad information about how the project will be implemented. Outline how the project will roll out by defining timelines, resources, and management stages. This is a high-level overview that will, as the project proceeds, be supported by more detailed project planning documents.
Initial Project Plan
Assignments: What major tasks (with milestones) will be completed during the project?
Schedule: Provide a report of the estimated time involved for the project. You've probably already prepared a high level Gantt chart or similar schedule, so the PID simply summarizes the anticipated schedule.
Human Resources: How many days activity will be needed to complete the project? How many support staff will be needed? Will you need to bring more people onto the project team?
Project Control: How will progress be monitored and communicated?
Quality Control: How will the quality of deliverables be evaluated and monitored?
Key Points A Project Initiation Document is a guide to a project, clearly laying out the justification for a project, what its objectives will be, and how the project will be organized. This helps ensure that everyone knows what's going on right from the outset.
The amount of detail included should be sufficient for the reader to understand the basic purpose of the project and to determine, in principle, the overall feasibility of the project objectives and plan. The PID is supported by many detailed planning documents that may not be entirely completed by the time that the PID is prepared
Project Visit Tempat: 1. Look Tower - Hulu Langat 2. Burung Gergasi Subang Jaya (Projek Gagal di Tepi High Way) 3. Kompleks 3K di Petaling Jaya ( Kompleks, Komuniti dan Kemasyarakatan) Case Study: Memperincikan tentang 'Project Scope' dan ' Why Project Fail' Kajian dibuat keatas beberapa faktor utama termasuklah: 1. dari segi 'Kos Projek, Jangkamasa Projek dan Skop Projek 2. Kepentingan dan Pengaruh 'Project Stakeholder' keatas sesebuah projek. 3. Mengapa kebanyakkan projek gagal.
Hasil dari lawatan akan dibentangkan didalam kuliah pada 29 May 2009. Diantara pengamatan awal dari lawatan ada diantara peserta yang memberikan pandangan bahawa ada diantara projek yang dijalankan tidak memenuhi kehendak 'stakeholder' seperti dari pihak pengguna dan orang awam setempat. Ada juga projek yang dijalankan kerana mendapat arahan dari pihak atasan dan tanpa membuat 'feasibility study' (kewajaran) terlebih dahulu.